by Andre E. Johnson
Director: The Henry McNeal Turner Project

I discovered Henry McNeal Turner by accident. While starting a seminar class in rhetorical criticism and trying to hone in on a dissertation topic, I ran across a speech delivered by Turner. He delivered the speech on the floor of the Georgia House of Representatives as the House debated whether African Americans could hold office in the state of Georgia. I remember reading the speech and wondering if anyone had studied Turner’s rhetoric.

However, there was a problem. Since Turner lived during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, it was my belief that texts to study Turner would be difficult to find. Turner, like many of his contemporaries during this time, spoke extemporaneously—not from notes or prepared texts. Moreover, unlike many other speakers during this time, Turner did not travel with a stenographer—or someone who could have written what Turner said for later publication. Going into my project, I only hoped there were enough texts to do a solid dissertation.

Imagine my surprise though when I found that Turner was one of the most prolific writers and speakers during his time and that much of his writings were not lost to history. Turner published copious amounts of material for the newspapers, magazines, and journals of his day. Turner lectured throughout the country and wrote extensively on his travels to Africa. In short, many would consider Turner a public intellectual in today’s definition of the term.

Sadly, many today have not heard of Turner. Indeed, it is as if Turner has been lost to history. I found myself always explaining to people who Turner was and why I thought, at least, he was so important. This is why this site exists. It is our intent to recover a lost voice within American and African American history. Henry McNeal Turner deserves recognition and it is our fervent hope that this site begins to serve that purpose.

To Hold Memorial Services: August 9, 1899

To Hold Memorial Services

The Atlanta Constitution: August 9, 1899; pg. 7

Among those who have voiced their regret at the death of ex-Governor Atkinson is Bishop H. M. Turner, of the African Methodist Episcopal church.

Following is a tribute in which he issues a call for a meeting of the members of his race to hold memorial services in honor of the distinguished statesman:

Atlanta, Ga., August 8.—To the near 800 ministers, itinerant and local, and 90,000 members of the African Methodist Episcopal church in the state of Georgia, and to the Africanite in general:

The sad and direful tidings will have reached you by the wires before the arriving of this epistle that ex-Governor W. Y. Atkinson is no longer among the living. A great statesman, scholar, orator, jurist, executive, philanthropist, humanitarian and a just and righteous man has succumbed to a premature death. To our race, his death comes as a sad calamity, because he was the friend of the lowly, the oppressed and the despised, as well as to the great and mighty. He was the symbol of justice and rectitude in all of his official acts. Equity was enthroned and balustered by the armlets of divinity in all the dealings of the ex-governor with men. And thus conscious of the righteousness of his course he was brave and defiant. He was one of the few white men in the land that scorned and condemned any attempt to ridicule or denounce him because he administered and demanded justice to the poor and lowly, regardless of the color of his skin or the texture of the hair. While he was as true to his own race and their every interest as a needle is to the pole; in short, while he was a white man in all that the term signifies, righteously applied, yet he towered above the mere white man as high as the Rocky Mountains tower above a molehill. With him right was white, justice was race and equity was manhood, greatness, and nobility.

Over two hundred colored papers from all parts of the United States come to my office every week, and I notice in cataloguing the friends of our race in the United States, Governor Atkinson, of Georgia, is regarded among the most prominent, not because he was a negro lover, but because he was a righteous man and blindfolded his eyes when duty was to be performed and made white, black, yellow, brown, or swarthy, items of no consideration.

Therefore, as the bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal church in the state of Georgia, I call upon the ministers and members at their earliest convenience to meet in their respective church edifices and hold memorial services in honor of the great deceased.

And I further invite the ministers, members, and Africanite friends to meet this Wednesday evening at 7:30 o’clock at Bethel church, on Auburn Avenue, where commemorative addresses will be delivered and resolutions adopted in harmony with the object and purpose of the meeting.

It would be more in keeping with propriety and order of affairs to meet at Bethel church at 3:30 o’clock this afternoon at the time the funeral services will be held in Newman, but as Rev. Dr. C. L. Bridwell and others will likely be at the funeral, we will hold the meeting in the church at a later hour.

H. M. TURNER, Bishop

Introduction: From: Outlines of Christian Theology or Theological Hints, by J.M. Conne: 1896

From: Outlines of Christian Theology or Theological Hints, by J.M. Conner. Little Rock, Arkansas. Brown Printing Company, 1896

NEVER in the history of the Christian Church did the sacred truths of Divine revelation have to wrestle with so many insidious and ensnaring enemies, as have been projected and embellished within the last one or two decades. Rationalistic interpretations of Biblical doctrines have been supplemented with false premises, corrupt, but garnished philosophies, and illogical conclusions have been reached and palmed off on the reading world by the glare of mere rhetoric, when, in fact, these opposing theories are nothing but the fascinations of imaginary hypothecations, which, instead of being denounced by the scholars of the Church, are too often lifted to the plane of respectability – by assuming to give them scholarly battle, when, in most instances, they should have simply hurled against them the battering-rams of denunciation. The reason is the highest faculty which God has imparted to man, and is the most powerful agent in reducing the doctrines of Christianity to their component parts; analogical reasoning is an indispensable factor in simplifying those doctrines. But no logical postulate, in all human experiences, has been sufficient to guide man as to his life and conduct. God has, therefore, placed in our hands a supernatural and sufficient revelation of His will to enable us to understand and practicalize the virtues and graces which should ornament us here, and prepare us for a felicitous eternity, because this revelation is addressed to our understanding, and thereby to our hearts and consciences. And, while it is judged and authenticated by our intellectual faculties, reason serves as an interpreter and shows its harmony with the divine law by the blessings obedience to that law impart. But God, per se, is above all reason, and Christianity, including regeneration, sanctification, and all that comprehends growth in grace, is also above reason; and that class of scholars who assume that God is not beyond reason, is too often led into the mazes of doubt, and terminate their investigations in the clutches of agnosticism, which, in our day, is the most seductive foe with which the Church has to wrestle. An agnostic, after all, is simply a know-nothing in religion. Indeed, he is a know-nothing about all that involves heaven, hell, a judgment, retribution and the Triune God himself. And, still further, he holds that exist in any form, beyond and behind phenomena, is unknown and unknowable – a condition which, when reached, is not only lamentable but absolutely awful.

The vast number of books which are now being written and published, and the multitude of book agents who are canvassing for their sale, with their flattering recommendations, are disseminating among the uncultured masses every imaginable theory in the prowess of unsanctified ingenuity. Thus, we are living in a dangerous period – while it is a period of great enlightenment and progress. A large majority of the reading world accept any theory, however foreign to the truth, as a veritable declaration, because some neatly bound and, possibly, the gold-gilt book so states. Beyond that, they seem to have no thought; and, instead of being able to formulate some counter-argument, to rebut the many wild sophistries. Especially is this the case with any people who have not been accustomed to classic books, and are passing through a transitional state. No era in the history of the world has been so pregnant with the reading matter as the present. Every railroad train is laden with dime novels, nickel papers, and obscene literature, while the daily, weekly and monthly periodicals abound with science, so-called; and, when sifted by a rigid investigation, is found to be not only vulgar and corrupting to good morals, in too many instances, but in many cases a tissue of suppositions, which are not entitled to the respect of decent fancy. The standard magazines are made up of a stolid indifference to truth and veracity, which often makes the vehicles of false and dangerous thought. To meet this condition of things, and counteract its ruinous influence upon the young and inexperienced, and that class of readers whose intellects have not been trained to analyze the different subjects often treated, and throw off the rubbish, Christian men of ability, and more particularly ministers of the gospel, who possess native talent and have had the advantage of learning, should employ every opportunity in writing upon all moral and religious questions, and thus show that the Church is able to take up every gauntlet thrown down by the theorists and sophists of our time, and to meet the seductive and soul-blighting influences which the enemies of God are manufacturing, to subvert His reign in the hearts of men.

Rev. J. M. Conner, A. M., S. T. D., who has not yet reached the prime of life, and whose learning and present industry argue great achievements for the future, has rendered the Church, and his day and generation, an incalculable service, and has placed those contemporaneous with him, and the next generation at least, under lasting gratitude for this work – “Outlines of Christian Theology” – and more especially, as the times not only demand it, but the race of which he is an honorable representative is in need of it. We believe he is the third divine in our Church, out of our thousands of ministers, who have dared to lift his pen theologically in the defense of our common Christianity, and so systematize the great code of moral truth that our ministers in all parts of the world, and others of every hue and shade, may be better prepared to preach the gospel with that point and edge, and orthodox solidity, which will make it efficient and potential for good in this life and the life to come. A living ministry is the great want of the Church. A ministry that will move the people, convince the skeptic, and demolish the theories of the pantheist and the atheist, as well as show the folly of agnosticism, which is now the chief citadel of the unbeliever. Christian Theology comprises that science which treats of the existence and attributes of God; the reciprocal relations between man and his Creator; the dispensations of His providence; His pleasure with regard to our actions, and His purposes with respect to our destination. We use the words Christian Theology in contra-distinction to the theologies of Homer, Plato, Orpheus and others, who were denominated theologians, which the Christian fathers consecrated by the term to comprehend biblical truths. While the word was first used to denote the systems of heterogeneous fables of the poets and philosophers who wrote of the gods of ancient Greece, and still more ancient Egypt, on account of their sublime speculations, it was afterwards employed by primitive writers of the Christian church to include those sublime and abstract truths which are not speculative, but embrace the great scheme of redemption and all of its concomitants; for, after all, in the language of the great historian of reformation: “Jesus Christ is the purpose of God in history,” and we might say with equal propriety, that Jesus Christ is the purpose of God, as made manifest in the teachings, elucidations, and manifestations of the Divine purpose in all Christian theology. Remove Christ and the prophecies, types and shadows, symbolic sacrifices, the Star of Bethlehem, followed by the magi, the baptism of John, including the miracles, and terminating in the death, resurrection and ascension, and all that pertains thereto becomes a sounding brass and tinkling cymbal, and theology itself becomes a delusive figment. But, with Christ as the heart and vitalizing arteries of the grand system of morals, comprehended in theological lore, mankind of every race variety, with all of their learning and metaphysical prowess, may come and learn, study, digest and practicalize, until humanity itself takes on the qualities, characteristics and the grandeur of a God, so far as it is possible in the flesh and the expansive, evolving and progressive conditions of the spirit world, which will enable him to consort with angels, cherubs, and seraphs through all eternity.

While our time has been too much absorbed with the many duties and responsibilities connected with our official position in the church to carefully examine the portion of manuscript submitted to us for inspection, we feel safe in presuming that Dr. Conner has not wavered from the fundamental doctrines held by orthodox Christians in every age of the church. While language arrangement and sentence construction may vary, to impart more simplicity and enable the novitiate reader to better comprehend the great doctrines of Divine revelation, there can be but one basic truth, while there may be varied in detail. It is natural to suppose that Dr. Conner will prominently stand out in the treatment of the various subjects he has discussed, yet being satisfied that he has followed in the wake of the illustrious Wesley and other champions of Methodism, and above them, the revealed word of God, we commend this book to the present and coming ministry of the Church.

ATLANTA, GA., October 24, 1895

The Baptist Magazine: 1897

Bishop H.M. Turner, D., LL. D.
From the National Baptist Magazine. Lynchburg, Va. 1897, p 584

“I would not be understood as saying that the black man cannot exist here as a mere individual. That he is doing very well, but if he would ever become anything in the way of a power and force in the world, ever reach the condition where his influence and commerce would be courted and turned to his own advantage, he must have a country and a government of his own that is a success.

Why, if we had a negro nation in Africa, though it did not contain over ten millions of people, and if we had active and prosperous cities, had cars and telegraph lines schools and factories, newspapers and ships, and numbered among our populations statesmen, writers and soldiers of recognized ability, and more especially, if we had a substantial currency and commerce of our own—made and carried on by our own race, the condition of the black man would be elevated all over the world. These things I have just mentioned constitute the very nest egg of civilization and only their successful and permanent development out of a people’s own resources can ever bring national vigor and strength.”

“Go to Arica, by all means, and not only do I advise the young man to do this, but those of middle life, who are physically able to stand the rough and tumble of life of a new country. To the young Negro of education and ability Liberia is the most promising country in the world. Its government and social institutions are developing very satisfactorily, and there is nothing whatever in his way. There are, of course some climatic objections to persons going from the cooler sections of the United States. One must become acclimated just as the Northern man who moves South. Hundreds go there who acclimate without the least trouble and go right to work. There is no sickness in Liberia more than might be expected in any new country, and there was only a rail-road by which the high lands back fifty miles from the coast could be reached at once by the new citizen, one should need no acclimatization.”

Strong Negro Endorsements of the Proposition to Have a Building for Afro-Americans: January 7, 1894

Strong Negro Endorsements of the Proposition to Have a Building for Afro- Americans 

The Atlanta Constitution: Jan 7, 1894, pg.17 

Editor Constitution- I was delighted yesterday morning with your editorial referring to the progress that has been made in our Southland, especially by the Afro- Americans, as you are pleased to call us, and which is the proper name for us, I grant. For that is about what we are—Americans from Africa. Yet, I have been called a negro so long that I rather prefer the title. You assure us in your complimentary editorial that we are to be offered a prominent place in the great exposition contemplated in Atlanta, and invited to exhibit the evidences of our industry, skill, genius, enterprise, economy, learning, art and what-ever will give evidence of our progress and development.

As one, I exceedingly regret that we were not aware that this overture would be made at an earlier day as I believe the results would have been far more creditable. I believe this is the second time where such an invitation has been made to our people, the first being by Director General Burke of the New Orleans exposition some ten or eleven years ago, I think, and this is the second instance when we have been offered an opportunity to exhibit the results of our industry in common with the whites, and promised a prominent place. The world’s exposition at Chicago, or rather our national exposition, only tendered us the exalted position of taking care of the toilet rooms, and excused themselves from further recognition of us upon the plea that the south would become offended, and would not patronize the great exposition. Now it would seem that the south is about to do the very thing that so frightened Chicago—that she pretended that she had to snub the negro for. I did not fully believe it at the time and now this settles it.

I do not mean to criticize the people of the city of Chicago as such, but I do mean to tell the country and the manipulators of the Chicago exposition that there is something that needs explanation, for there are tens of thousands still indignant about our recognition there, and the writer is one of that number. Nothing that has occurred so intensified my African emigrational proclivities as our treatment by the national exposition in Chicago. I thought, as did many other colored people, that possibly southern prejudice had increased since the great New Orleans exposition and was serving somewhat as a bar to our recognition, but lo and behold, it all turns out to be hoax. Since writing the above I have discovered that the exposition is to be held in 1895 instead of ’94 as I thought, so there will be more time allowed than I had presumed.


H.M. Turner.
Atlanta, G., January 5, 1894

Bishop Turner's Wall: July 18, 1896

Bishop Turner’s Wail
Cleveland Gazette: July 18, 1896 

“I have absolutely no interest in the issues of this bloody, lynching nation, with its brutal Supreme Court in Washington City issuing decisions against my race which were never dreamed of in hell. I care but little whether the Republican or Democratic party is successful. Neither of them care anything about the Negro, for the representatives of neither party in that miserable conclave known as the United States Congress ever opened their mouths about the way my race is butchered, shot and burnt without law or civil rule.

“This rotten country has no business being a nation anyway. It is an organized mob from Maine to Texas. Those who do not participate in the lawless murders, Jim Crow car discriminations and every other devilment against my race, stand by and say ‘well done’ by their silence.

“The people of England are the only ones who can open their mouths about the ‘mob-ocracy’ of this sham nation. I would welcome no information unless it is concerning the reformation or extermination of this bloody-handed country—north and south alike—for one is as guilty as the other.

“H. M. Turner, Atlanta, Ga.”

Turner Scores His Critics: September 11, 1897

Turner Scores His Critics
Atlanta Constitution: September 11, 1897; pg. 4

Editor Constitution – I find in your issue of August 9th my position on African emigration is severely, yet, by some, very respectfully assailed by a cluster of lights whom you are pleased to entitle ‘leading and representative negroes.’ Some of these shimmering fulgurations, at least, I am sure were more than delighted with the information for they had certainty never heard of their own exaltedness before.

Leadership among the colored people has greatly waned. If all the persons whose names appear in the issue mentioned have attained to that position. I have been living in Georgia and visiting Georgia for more than forty years and I had not even known of the existence of some of them until I saw their names in The Constitution. If billingsgate spouters, and aspersive mudslingers who can do or say nothing more than ‘I object’ have bound at once into leadership and if the colored people are going to recognize them as such, then our doom as a race is fixed. I have always understood leadership to consist of men or women taking some logical position and standing by and contending for it by the presentation of such arguments as would convince intelligent thinkers and command a respectable following.

Some weeks ago I snatched a little time from my pressing and ever increasing engagements and duties (with about a thousand unanswered communications lying upon my office table) and wrote what was possibly a somewhat disconnected reply to a number of calumnious criticisms and invectives which had been made upon me by The Boston Globe. These criticisms and invectives had done me great injustice, to say the least, and downright violence to the International Migration Society, located at Birmingham, Ala. The Globe had at the same time opened its columns to the ignorant mouthings and garrulity of a few returned emigrants from Liberia, who, judging from the…..misrepresentation of facts, were totally destitute of honor and intelligence.

But the editorial staff of that famous and widely circulated journal were by a cluster of colored divines and politicians of Atlanta adjudged to be unequal to the task intellectually of taking care of themselves, and moved by sympathy for the mental and literary imbecility of the said editorial staff and pitying their discomfited plight, this galaxy of learned, able and distinguished, colored dignitaries had to rush to the defense and rescue the vanquished staff of the great Boston Globe. ‘How art the mighty fallen!’ Shades of Horace Greeley, James Gordon Bennett and Henry W. Grady defend us. But let us not be alarmed, the proud profession so neatly maintained and illustriously advanced by these great men still survives, for has not Atlanta marshaled four invulnerable Achilles to the defense, while even renowned old Greece could not muster one? The sun do move.’

Aroused from Their Lethargy 

How lamentable that this coterie of distinguished and representative negroes have (with one exception, Dr. Carter.) never been heard from in connection with their race before. But I judge that nothing of sufficient magnitude or merit has arisen to claim their exalted attentions. Race proscriptions, class legislations, judicial discriminations, from the Supreme Court of the United States down, practical disfranchisement, brutally outraging females, lynchings for any accusation (even for the allegation of stealing a Bible), liquor brothels at every corner, Sabbath desecrations, strikes on account of color, the shooting down of Christian gentlemen in the church of God with the jailing of ministers of the gospel as accomplices, Jim-crow cars where our wives and daughters must be smoked to death, enforced by the legislative enactments of some of the states, and the high crimes and misdemeanors too numerous to mention; yet nothing has occurred of sufficient importance to arouse those gentlemen from the quietude or slumbers. But when African emigration is touched upon they spring up and sing out their objections in hollow, empty and toad-croaked chorus. Especially when the possibility of the black man’s having a country of his own is touched; where he can enjoy all the rights and immunities of the governing classes in this country, and have legislatures and courts and armies and navies and presidents or kings and generals and ships and commerce and banks and trade and wealth and power, and demonstrate to the world his fitness and ability to be a man among men and play his part in the great drama of civilization and maintain the immortalizing distinction of national autonomy, unity and independence. When the possibility of these great facts concerning the black man are pointed out, why it is then that consternation sizes upon the distinguished and representative negroes of Atlanta, and they must rush into print and declare that the negroes of the Untied States are incompetent and unable to perform any such noble task and are unwilling to undertake it. And to clinch his argument, one of the party (Rev. B. T. Harvey) proclaims to the world that ‘the colored people in the United States are not as yet civilized,’ which is misrepresentation, a charge, a slander, a falsehood, I have known no white man, even to make against the negro race, whatever may be his color prejudices, in the last twenty years. Rev. Harvey, may be a sort of harmless nilly-wily Christian gentleman and the fact that he tells the world that the negroes of the United States are not civilized may be due to his ignorance, but at all events, if he is the pastor of a congregation I would advise his members to procure a lunatic from the insane asylum in his stead and spare their children the affliction at hearing the babble of an idiot. He even turn upon his confraternity in the battle and calls Rev. Proctor, Alexander, Carter and Captain Easley heathen savages, for if they are not civilized they can be nothing else. A ‘leading representative negro,’ forsooth. His vaporings are the veritable twaddle of that sad condition of a dwarfed mind which gruesomely shows how far degraded and presents a double argument in favor of African emigrating. The fact that such instances of obtuse shallowness can at all be found in this ‘land of the free and home of the brave,’ as he would sing it, is the strongest proof possible in favor of organized and instantaneous emigration.

Don’t Favor Wholesale Emigration. 

We have never favored or advocated the wholesale emigration of our race in Africa. We only wanted two or three million to go, but if we are still heathen savages, as Rev. Harvey represents, the sooner we move somewhere and procure civilization the better for us. The white people have has us under training for virtually 300 years, and as they have failed to civilize us we had better seek other quarters. I have been in the habit of congratulating myself upon not getting mad. I frequently preach against Christians flying into mad fits and condemn it as sinful and even wicked. But when I read in The Constitution where Rev. Harvey declared me uncivilized and practically proclaimed me a heathen savage, in common with the rest of my race, I was fired with indignation. It is the most fearful insult offered the negro in the aggregate by any man, white or black, in this country in a generation of years, and I pity his associates in the symposium, as they all agree. Consonsus tauit legem. I have always maintained that if the negro could not force his way into respectable recognition in this country, he should go where he could. This is just what all other races which have proven themselves fit to survive have done when pushed to the wall, or when strong enough have risen in revolt and overthrown the powers that degraded them, but when not strong enough to do this they have followed the natural law of self-preservation and emigrated. And right here we discover a great fact in ethnological research, to wit: Whenever a people have had the spirit to emigrate from overshadowing influence, they have always possessed the courage and endurance necessary to overcome all the hardships encountered in reducing a country from a state of nature to the requirements of civilization and this is just what I have contended that the negro should do. The white race has done so and the negro must do so, too, or be a byword for all time to come. The negro must demonstrate his fitness by his means to survive, amid the clashing elements of racial force, by going somewhere for himself and taking hold of the natural obstructions in the way of an enlightened civilization and hurl them aside. For until the negro goes somewhere and exterminates the wild beasts levels the forests, bridges the streams, plants the fields, erects houses, builds railroads and telegraph lines, founds his schools and colleges, enacts his laws, maintains government and challenges the respect of mankind he will never command the respect of the world. And all the schoolbook scholars, who think they know so much while the bulk of them practically know nothing, will never succeed in giving our race prestige, nor otherwise. For if the negro cannot do this, he need never hope to enjoy the blessings of race manhood, for he is a failure, and if he can but will not, he does not deserve to enjoy them.

As to Race Recognition 

The Anglo-Saxon races have done this with eminent and signal illustrations of the varied resources of their manhood, and they will now very naturally and very justly refuse the negro his high fraternity and respect until he has done the same. I have urged, and still urge, two or three million of my race to do this, and let the dependent, scullionized, riff-raff, ragtag and bobtail negro remain here till he disappears by extermination, as he certainly will do. One of the distinguished four appears to be very anxious to know why I do not go to Africa and remain there. The reason is because more brain would have gone with me than the negro race was able to spare, if he is a representative specimen of the race; but the moment I can get fifty or a hundred thousand to accompany me, he may rest assured I am gone. I am not afraid of Africa. From actual observation taken on the spot, I hold the unchallenged position that Africa proffers the greatest possibilities on earth for the negro to emigrates to, if he ever expects to be anything this side of the judgment. Africa offers the least obstacles to settlement of any land under the sun, and this is notably different from the conquest of the white man in this country. Nothing has occurred in the settlement of Liberia that even approximates the hardships, sufferings, starvation and deaths that attended the whites in the early settlement of this country.

These blab mouthed whiners, whoever and anon are trying to berate and run down the little republic of Liberia because many of the emigrants pass through a little acclimating fever and some die, are simply advertising their ignorance: they are telling the world that they are no scholars beyond schoolboy training and they know nothing of the history of nations and peoples. I would be ashamed to let the enlightened and thoughtful world know how little I knew about matters and things if I were expending so must loquacity.

Some Information for Them 

For the information of this distinguished quartet of African emigration sponsors, most of whom are my personal friends, let me give them a little history, which my be of some service to them and their conferrees. And they would do well to read a little more history anyway.

In speaking of the early settlement of Plymouth, Mass., Palfrey in the ‘History of New England,’ says: “The labor of preparing habitations had scarcely begun when sickness set in; within four months it carried off nearly half of the company. Of the 102 who had arrived six died in December, eight in January, seventeen in February and Thirteen in March. At one time there were only six or seven who had strength enough left to nurse the dying and bury the dead. The sick lay crowded in unwholesome, half-built cabins heaped around with snowdrifts. The dead were interred in a bluff by the waterside, the marks of burial being carefully effaced lest the natives (Indians) should discover how safe would be an attack. But through all this sorrow the lesson rehearsed at Leyden was not forgotten, that all great and honorable actions are accompanied with great difficulties and must be enterprised and overcome with unanswerable courage.’

Has the distinguished gentlemen heard of any such calamity in connection with the Liberian emigrants? Again Palfrey says: “The Mayflower returned to England sailing April 1 1621. About that time Carver, one of the colonials who had been chosen governor, died and was greatly lamented. His wife followed him in a few weeks. Bradford was put in Carver’s place. Isaac Allerton was chosen to be his assistant. Forty-six of the Mayflower passengers were now dead, including twenty-eight of the forty-eight adult men. Before the next arrival of emigrants in autumn fifty-one, just half of the first emigrants, were dead.’

Well may the white man exult in the glories of his nation and call it the ‘home of the brave.’

In 1630 a number of vessels arrived, bringing 1,000 passengers. But says Mr. Palfrey: “The reception of the newcomers was discouraging. More than a quarter part of their predecessors at Salem had died during the previous winter and many of the survivors were ill or feeble. The faithful Higginson was wasting with a hectic fever which soon proved fatal. There was a scarcity of all sorts of provisions and not corn enough for a fortnight’s supply after the arrival of the fleet. The remainder of 180 servants, who in the tow preceding years had been conveyed over at a heavy cost, were discharged from their indentures to escape the expense of their maintenance. Sickness soon began to spread and before the close of autumn had carried off 200 of that year’s emigration.’

“Distinguished bloods and dignitaries, have you ever heard of any such appalling instances in connection with the emigrants to Liberia? No, no, you have heard of nothing that indexed it.

Draws a Comparison 

Now let us come further south and see what the forefathers of the southern white people did. In and address delivered in 1834, touching this subject, Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen said: ‘As one illustration I have collected the prominent incidents connected with the colony planted at Jamestown, Va., in May 1607. It then consisted of 100 persons, which number before September of that year was reduced to fifty and soon after thirty-eight, when a re-enforcement of 130 arrived. In 1609 a further addition of 150 persons was made, and the colony then amounted to 500 souls, but they were reduced in six months to sixty persons. In 1611 the colony had increased to 200. In 1622 it had become still more populous, when it was attacked by the Indians and 347 men, women and children were destroyed and the colony taken into the hands of the king and enjoyed the care and protection of the crown.’

Will the four distinguished gentlemen name an instance when the southern white people have called their ancestors fools for coming to this country and enduring these hardships to make a virtual paradise for their children and children’s children? As I have heard colored men and women call those who went to Liberia.

But again, the venerable Chief Justice Marshall gives the conclusion of the matter as it stood in 1624 and says more than 9,000 persons had been sent from Europe to people Jamestown and yet, at the end of seventeen years, the population was reduced to 1,800 persons.’

Do the four gentlemen desire any more history in connection with the early settlement of this country? If they do I am prepared to furnish it. But possibly I had better allow them time to digest this first.

Drs. Alexander and Carter who reference upon the ground that I wanted the educated negro alone to emigrate to Africa. Many thanks, but I beg their pardon. I want some educated men and women as a natural consequence, but history shows no instance where the educated masses have ever pioneered the civilization of any country. I want the common people, the industrious, the rustic, the hardworking and as many illiterates as wish to go. Did educated men pave the way for the development and civilization of South America?

Was not Australia developed and civilized by penal colonies? By convicts, cut throats, murderers and scoundrels of every kind, which ‘under the law’ should have been put to death or imprisoned for life. Have not thousands and thousands of their children and grandchildren changed their names to get rid of the disgraceful taint of their fathers and mothers? And yet Australia has not only given the world doctors, lawyers, statesmen, divines, bishops, lords and dignitaries, but a few years ago when her banks suspended she shook the financial world. And if this country will turn over to me the penitentiary convicts and a million or two dollars to transport them to Africa I will do the same.

As To Healthfulness 

“Much is said about the little sickness and few deaths which have visited the emigrants in Liberia. Many of the colored people of this country have put on a face as long as a horse and mourned dolorously over a few deaths of which they have heard, yet two years ago 1,000 white men entered the Klondike region and all have died except 200 and not a sigh has been heard from no white man or woman upon earth for the 800 men who sacrificed their lives in trying to do something for themselves, their families and their race. But had they been black men there would have been a wail and a howl throughout the country and Klondike would have been denounced as the hell of hells. But thank God I am prepared to say that negroes are not alike: at least 2,000,000 are ready to leave the very moment a line of steamers are placed between the United States and Africa. Rev. Harvey has labored hard in his invectives to prove that I am financially connected with the International Migration Society, and the only reply I have to make is that the only reason I am not is because I am too poor. If I had $6,000,000 I would invest every cent in emigrational ships to Africa and thank God for the opportunity.

There is a certain class of negroes in this country who think it pleases the white people to hoot down and jeer at every proposition made concerning African emigration. Poor, deluded, nondescript, they do not stem to know that they thereby render themselves intolerably disgusting in the sight of the very class around whose slop troughs they exploit their groveling and shameless degradation. They cannot get it into their little pates that the great and noble among the Anglo-Saxon and other races are ever attracted to the weak and unfortunate, especially when they see exhibited among them the splendid elements of character which signalize the noble and the brave. This is the basic—the fundamental truth which underlies the ethics of heroism and sustains the ennobling qualities of human life.

“But the Atlanta quartet, with the mouthy Rev. Harvey in the lead, could never dream of this. They go bounding about with nimble suppliant dexterity eager to attract the approving smiles of a few white men, north and south, who despise the negro on general principles. At the first sound of the conflict brought on by the great Boston Globe they rush into print, emptying their little slings at me and African emigration.

“Well, gentlemen, I was not bothering you. You shot at me first and you must allow me to return the fire.

“Rev. Harvey in an apparent effort to out-do himself and overtopple all others in a crowning slander of his race, says; ‘This country was colonized by the best people of the old world. They brought civilized life with them, led by the chivalrous cavaliers and indomitable Puritans. We cannot now send such colonies to Liberia, for the reason that our race in the United States is not yet civilized.’ Hear it, ye teachers, principals, deans and presidents of institutions, colleges and universities. Hear it, ye lawyers and doctors and artisans and painters and poets and preachers and mechanics and farmers and dressmakers and typewriters and stenographers and telegraphers and musicians and photographers and authors and postmasters and revenue collectors and government clerks and foreign diplomats and merchants and bankers and printers and colored men, worth three, four and five hundred thousand dollars and thousands upon tens of thousands of intelligent and loving wives and mothers of this maligned race.

But, let us look at these chivalrous cavaliers and indomitable Puritans,’ represented as the best people of the old world and brought ‘civilized life’ with them. Brave and courageous and indomitable I grant. But who were the cavaliers? Were they the freebooters who robbed, pillaged and put to death by all the horrors of perdition innocent and unsuspecting aborigines who came to them like angels of mercy and succored them from the pitiless rigor and blast of New England winter? And who were these civilized Puritans? Were they the fanatic who burned their old mothers and aunts and sisters for witches in Salem? Were they the men who put children to death for disobedience to parents? Did they fine and flog children for walking on the grass by the roadside on Sunday? Were these the men “who tried a chicken rooster by a jury for crowing on the Sabbath and convicted and put him to death as an emissary of the devil? Were these the best people of the old world? And shall we admit and proclaim to the world that these witch burners at Salem were superior in civilization and intelligence to the best and most enlightened negroes in this country? Has any of the emigrants who ever went to Liberia perpetrated such appealing acts? Could any one believe that a colony composed of such people was superior to such an honest and intelligent yeomanry body as could be miscellaneously collected from the colored people in any part of the United States even on the rice plantations of South Carolina and Georgia? Does any one believe that such would be the result if such men as William Still, B. F. Lee, Robert Purvis, W. H. Connell, Booker T. Washington, W. B. Derrick, B. W. Arnett, C.L. Bradwell, J.B. Flipper, H. A. Rucker, William Flagg, Alexander Hamilton, R. R. Wright and even Carter Alexander and Proctor themselves were governors, presidents or kings and thousands of others who might be named?

All of the arguments I have heard against African emigration are about alike. They simply sneer at and belittle the negro by contrasting him with the giant white race and seek to discourage the measure by comparing the naked and barren conditions of the African (which will only last for a short time), with the ‘glorious and great blessings of Christian civilization in this country.’ And the motive underlying all of these arguments may always be found either in the stupid fawning and sycophancy of a class of imbecile negroes or in the alert and far-reaching designs of a class of white people, most generally in both. But in closing this communication which I have had to write in haste, as I have just reached home, and have a vast mail before me, I beg to say that the thoughtful, scholarly, statemanic and higher type of the whites indorse my African emigration policy as well as countless numbers of sober, thoughtful black people. Not more than one-third of the children of Israel came out of Egypt; the others were exterminated or swallowed up in the waters of mankind, and such will be the case with the American negro. A third or a fourth will leave sooner or later and the remainder will stay here and be exterminated. Or, like the Israelites of old, be re-enslaved. At all events, the negro is an outside factor and will never be given social recognition, and as Senator Morgan, of Alabama, says, “He had better be a slave than a free man without social recognition if he intends to remain here,’ and that he will never receive social recognition. And Hon. John Temple Graves, orator, scholar, philosopher and statesman, says that ‘We know that the negro will never be allowed to control in this country, even where he has a majority; that the price of his peace is his subordination that his vote is no longer suppressed, simply because it is no longer dangerous; that never, never in a thousand years will he be recognized as a social or political equal, and that under the ban of social and political – inferiority he can never, never in this country attain to the full stature of a citizen or a man.’

Again he says the prejudices of the white people are eternal and indestructible.

Now, I ask what negro that treads the American soil would call in question or tell Mr. Graves that he does not voice the sentiment of the whites?

It is useless to say that’s Mr. Graves is speaking through his personal prejudices, for he has plead the cause of the back man as no other white man in the south with whom public remarks I am familiar.

Nature’s Invitation 

“Nature itself is invoking the American negro to return home as well as every postulate of reason or verdict of philosophy. The trade winds which formerly blew from three to four hundred miles out at sea, from the west coast of Africa, have mysteriously changed their course and are now fanning the shores, moderating the equatorial climate, diminishing the heat and humidity, driving away the fevers and fatal malaria. While the astronomers, mathematicians and scientists of the world stand dumb before this freak of nature, for none can account for it or advance a decent theory. But I believe I can account for it. It is nothing more nor less than God preparing Africa, for the reception of her long absent children.

“If these gentlemen would call a meeting and have a series of resolutions adopted thanking our generous governor and The Daily Constitution for services rendered in behalf of the convicts of the state, they would be better employed in berating Liberia and Africa.

‘I reluctantly conclude by saying to my race, two conditions confront extermination or emigration.

H.M. Turner